For the 12AX7 example, the maximum input signal to the grid is about 3Vp-p. That would correspond to an input range of [-1 +1].Â

Hope that helps - if you are not familiar with the terms dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio, headroom, and noise floor (which are critical for analog audio) then do some research on it; the Yamaha Sound Reinforcement Handbook is a great source for that info.

WillÂ

]]>Iâ€™m talking about pag. 97 (but I think this will apply everywhere)where you perform final output scaling and inversion. Why scaling is performed here if we multiply by -1? Is not only inversion? How the signal get rimapped into [-1 +1]?

and what do you mean when you say (pag 95) Â â€œI use a lot of headroom for the ClassAValve modelingâ€?

Â Thank you very much Will. Sorry for all these questions but Iâ€™m really passionate about these things and I want to do amp simulations one day (as I play guitar and I am in my third year of electrical engineering).Â

]]>And for other systems it changes according to the situation, such as maximum and minimum tensions. Right? ]]>

That 30Vpp input would map to the floating point digital range of [-1, +1]. And, if you applied an input of 30Vpp to your analog system, then you would likewise clip it if you applied a gain of x50 or x100.Â

So the answer is to use a x50 multiplier just as you normally would - it's all the same, just mapped to a different range. This also gets into the area of dynamic range, nominal signal levels, and headroom. All the same stuff applies, just remapped to that range.Â

WillÂ

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